Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite quail):  

Predictions & Data for this entry

Model:  std  

MRE = 0.159
SMSE = 0.151

Zero-variate data
ab 23 15.02 (0.3468)dage at birthHernPete2007
tp168 142.8 (0.15)dtime since birth at pubertyoecd2006
am2336 2336 (6.506e-05)dlife spanZamm1986
Li 26 26 (8.223e-06)cmultimate total lengthShan1994
Ww09.8 9.241 (0.05699)gwet weight at startLyon1962
Wwb 6 7.159 (0.1932)gwet weight at birthNewsBeac2008
Wwx182.9 182.9 (1.376e-05)gwet weight at fledgingRobeLind1966
WwR194.2 223 (0.1485)gwet weight at first reproductionRobeLind1966
Wwi255 223.2 (0.1248)gultimate wet weightNelsMart1953
Ri0.06164 0.1093 (0.7734)#/dmaximum reprod rateAnAge
Uni-variate data
DatasetFigure(RE)Independent variableDependent variableReference
tW see Fig. 1 (0.06948)time since birthwet weightJoneHugh1978
tW2 see Fig. 2 (0.1185)time since birthwet weightLyon1962
tW3 see Fig. 3 (0.1528)time since birthwet weightNewsBeac2008
tLe see Fig. 4 (0.1651)ageembryo lengthHans1954
tN see Fig. 5 (0.0823)timecumulated number of eggsGentSurl2005
Pseudo-data at Tref
DataGeneralised animalColinus virginianusUnitDescription
v 0.02 0.02617cm/denergy conductance
kap 0.8 0.8455-allocation fraction to soma
kap_R 0.95 0.95-reproduction efficiency
p_M 18 2147J/^3vol-spec som maint
k_J 0.002 0.0021/dmaturity maint rate coefficient
kap_G 0.8 0.8008-growth efficiency


  • There are many natural strains of bobwhite; few domesticated strains have been intentionally developed (ref: oecd2006)
  • The bobwhite is distributed from southeastern Ontario (Canada) to Guatemala and in Cuba but reaches its highest density in the eastern United States and Mexico (ref: oecd2006)
  • Body size also increases from south to north in its native range with birds in Chiapas, Mexico, averaging 129 g, whereas those in the eastern United States weigh about 172 g. (ref: oecd2006)
  • Bobwhite nest in the spring with clutch sizes of 10 to 15 eggs. (ref: oecd2006)
  • Body temperature of 38.9 in summer and 37.7 in winter - we use the summer temperature in this entry (ref: SwanWein1997)


  • The entries assumes all data are performed in the thermoneutral zone. Data from SwanWein1997 which are outside of the thermoneutral zone are not included.
  • t-N dataset: egg ripening assumed to be around 0.7 d^-1, and that material accumulated in the reproduction buffer for 182.5 days prior to experiment - this number is based on the fact that they have on average 1.5 clutches per year.


  • [Wiki]
  • [AnAge]
  • [Noah]
  • [GentSurl2005] A. Gentles, J. Surles, and E. E. Smith. Evaluation of adult quail and egg production following exposure to perchlorate-treated water. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 24(8):1930--1934, 2005.
  • [Hans1954] H. C. Hanson. Criteria of age of incubated mallard, wood duck, and bob-white quail eggs. The Auk, 71(3):267--272, 1954.
  • [HernPete2007] F. Hernandez and M. J. Peterson. Northern bobwhite ecology and life history. In L. A. Brennan, editor, Texas Quails Book, pages 40--64. Texas A & M University Press, 2007.
  • [JoneHugh1978] J. E. Jones and B. L. Hughes. Comparison of growth rate, body weight, and feed conversion between Coturnix d1 quail and bobwhite quail. Poultry Science, 57(5):1471--1472, 1978.
  • [Kooy2010] S.A.L.M. Kooijman. Dynamic Energy Budget theory for metabolic organisation. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 2010.
  • [Lyon1962] D. L. Lyon. Comparative growth and plumage development in Coturnix and bobwhite. The Wislon Bulletin, 74(1):5--27, 1962.
  • [NelsMart1953] A. L. Nelson and A. C. Martin. Gamebird weights. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 17(1):36--42, 1953.
  • [NewsBeac2008] J. L. Newsted, Susan A. Beach, S. P. Gallagher, and J. P. Giesy. Acute and chronic effects of perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) on the mallard and northern bobwhite quail. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol, 54:535--545, 2008.
  • [oecd2006] OECD. Detailed review paper for avian two-generation toxicity test. Technical report, OECD Environment, Health and Safety Publications Series on Testing and Assessment, 2006.
  • [RobeLind1966] R. J. Robel and S. A. Linderman. Weight dynamics of unconfined bobwhite quail in Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, 69(2):132--138, 1966.
  • [Shan1994] Page Shanaway. Quail production systems: a review. FAO (January 30, 1994), 1994.
  • [SpieAdam1985] D. E. Spiers, T. Adams, and R. K. Ringer. Homeothermic development in the bobwhite (Colinus virginianus). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Vol. 81A, No.4, pp. ,, 81A(4):921--927, 1985.
  • [SwanWein1997] D. L. Swanson and D. P. Weinacht. Seasonal effects on metabolism and thermoregulation in northern bobwhite. The Condor, 99:478--489, 1997.
  • [Zamm1986] R. M. Zammuto. Life histories of birds: clutch size, longevity, and body mass among North American game birds. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 64(12):2739--2749, 1986.

Bibtex files with references for this entry

Starrlight Augustine, Andre Gergs &Kim Ladermann, 2017/08/09

accepted: 2017/08/09

refer to this entry as: AmP Colinus virginianus version 2017/08/09