Somniosus microcephalus (Greenland shark):  

Predictions & Data for this entry

Model:  std  

MRE = 0.065
SMSE = 0.095

Zero-variate data
tp5.694e+04 5.847e+04 (0.0268)dtime since birth at pubertyNielHede2016
am1.431e+05 1.431e+05 (2.072e-05)dlife spanNielHede2016
Lb 40 40.3 (0.007499)cmtotal length at birthMacNMcMe2012
Lp480 462.9 (0.03556)cmtotal length at pubertyMacNMcMe2012
Li640 662.2 (0.03473)cmultimate total lengthMacNMcMe2012
Ri0.003044 0.00305 (0.0018)#/dmaximum reprod rateKoef1957
Uni-variate data
DatasetFigure(RE)Independent variableDependent variableReference
LW see Fig. 1 (0.1128)total lengthwet weightLeclLyde2012
LW2 see Fig. 2 (0.1038)total lengthwet weightNielHede2014
LW3 see Fig. 3 (0.3309)total lengthwet weightNielHede2014
tL see Fig. 4 (4.045e-07)timetotal lengthMacNMcMe2012
Pseudo-data at Tref
DataGeneralised animalSomniosus microcephalusUnitDescription
v 0.02 0.02371cm/denergy conductance
kap 0.8 0.8862-allocation fraction to soma
kap_R 0.95 0.95-reproduction efficiency
p_M 18 19.38J/^3vol-spec som maint
k_J 0.002 0.0021/dmaturity maint rate coefficient
kap_G 0.8 0.8001-growth efficiency


  • Accumulates trimethylamine N-oxide in its tissues as osmoprotectants and to increase their buoyancy. Flesh (kęstur hįkarl) is eaten in Iceland after detoxicification. (ref: Wiki)
  • Males typically smaller than females (ref: YanoStev2007)
  • Viviparous (ref: MacNMcMe2012)
  • A mature female of 447 cm TL had 455 oocytes, 5 cm diameter, weighing altogher 49 kg (ref: NielHede2014)


  • Gestation time is unknown. The assumed litter-interval of 9 yr is the smallest for which the predicted gestation time is smaller than the litter interval (given this set of life-history data)


  • [Wiki]
  • [fishbase]
  • [AuguLika2017] S. Augustine, D. Lika, and S. A. L. M. Kooijman. Comment on the ecophysiology of the Greenland shark, Somniosus microcephalus. Polar Biology, 1957.
  • [Koef1957] E. Koefoed. Notes on the Greenland shark Acanthorhinus carcharias (Gunn). 2. A Uterine foetus and the uterus from a Greenland shark. Fiskerdir. Skr. Ser. Havunders, 11(10):8--12, 1957.
  • [Kooy2010] S.A.L.M. Kooijman. Dynamic Energy Budget theory for metabolic organisation. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 2010.
  • [LeclLyde2012] L.-M. E. Leclerc, C. Lydersen, T. Haug, L. Bachmann, A. T. Fisk, and K. M. Kovacs. A missing piece in the Arctic food web puzzle? Stomach contents of Greenland sharks sampled in Svalbard, Norway. Polar Biology, 35(8):1197--1208, 2012.
  • [LydeAaro2016] C. Lydersen, A. T. Fisk, and K. M. Kovacs. A review of Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) studies in the Kongsfjorden area, Svalbard Norway. Polar Biology, 39(11):2169--2178, 2016.
  • [MacNMcMe2012] M. A. MacNeil, B. C. McMeans, N. E. Hussey, P. Vecsei, J. Svavarsson, K. M. Kovacs, C. Lydersen, M. A. Treble, G. B. Skomal, M. Ramsey, and A. T. Fisk. Biology of the Greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus. Journal of Fish Biology, 80(5):991--1018, 2012.
  • [NielHede2016] J. Nielsen, R. B. Hedeholm, J. Heinemeier, P. G. Bushnell, J. S. Christiansen, J. Olsen, C. B. Ramsey, R. W. Brill, M. Simon, K. F. Steffensen, and J. F. Steffensen. Eye lens radiocarbon reveals centuries of longevity in the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus). Science, 353(6300):702--704, 2016.
  • [NielHede2014] J. Nielsen, R. B. Hedeholm, M. Simon, and J. F. Steffensen. Distribution and feeding ecology of the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) in Greenland waters. Polar Biology, 37(1):37--46, 2014.
  • [YanoStev2007] K. Yano, J. D. Stevens, and L. J. V. Compagno. Distribution, reproduction and feeding of the Greenland shark Somniosus (Somniosus) microcephalus, with notes on two other sleeper sharks, Somniosus (Somniosus) pacificus and Somniosus (Somniosus) antarcticus. Journal of Fish Biology, 70(2):374--390, 2007.

Bibtex files with references for this entry

Bas Kooijman, Starrlight Augustine, 2016/09/04

accepted: 2017/02/17

refer to this entry as: AmP Somniosus microcephalus version 2017/02/17