Predictions & Data for this entry

Model: std climate: Cfb, Dfb, Dfc migrate:
COMPLETE = 2.6 ecozone: THp food: biCi
MRE = 0.136 habitat: 0jFp, jiTf, jiTg gender: Dg
SMSE = 0.133 embryo: Fh reprod: O

Zero-variate data
ab 10 10.14 (0.01398)dage at birthguessed
tj 58 52.22 (0.09967)dtime since birth at metamKatzWari2003
tp912.5 873.7 (0.04249)dtime since metam at pubertyEoL
am1.3e+04 1.309e+04 (0.006876)dlife spanWiki
Lb0.3 0.5032 (0.6773)cmtotal length at birthKatzWari2003
Lj1.3 0.9914 (0.2374)cmtotal length at metamKatzWari2003
Lp 13 13.06 (0.004364)cmtotal length at pubertyKatzWari2003
Li 15 14.96 (0.002615)cmultimate total lengthKatzWari2003
Wwb0.07 0.05364 (0.2337)gwet weight at birthBrunBern2009
Wwj0.35 0.4103 (0.1722)gwet weight at metamKatzWari2003
Wwp 60 58.57 (0.02377)gwet weight at pubertyKatzWari2003
Wwi 80 88.12 (0.1015)gultimate wet weightWiki
Ri4.11 3.77 (0.08273)#/dmaximum reprod rateEoL
Uni-variate data
DatasetFigure(RE)Independent variableDependent variableReference
tL see Fig. 1 (0.2117)time since hatchtotal lengthKatzWari2003
pXpG see Fig. 2 (14.99)ingestiongrowthJorg1988
Pseudo-data at Tref
DataGeneralised animalBufo bufoUnitDescription
v 0.02 0.2454cm/denergy conductance
kap 0.8 0.4057-allocation fraction to soma
kap_R 0.95 0.95-reproduction efficiency
p_M 18 90.07J/^3vol-spec som maint
k_J 0.002 0.0021/dmaturity maint rate coefficient
kap_G 0.8 0.8027-growth efficiency


  • Spends its life as a tadpole in the water and as an adult mainly on land in water rich environments. Female toads are somewhat larger (~15 cm) than males (~13 cm). It has a larval period of ca 58 days and it can become relatively old with a max age of ca 36 years. At an age of 3 - 4 years it starts reproduction. It lays a max of 8,000 eggs once a year. During winter it hibernates and in spring massive amounts of toads can migrate to their breeding grounds. It has a characteristic way of laying eggs in strings. (ref: Wiki)
  • Tadpoles lose much of their weight during metamorphosis (ref: KatzWari2003)


  • We here assume that, at metam, del_M and z change
  • Jorg1988 data got weight 0 because the time unit was not indicated and toad weight unclear


  • [Wiki]
  • [EoL]
  • [BrunBern2009] E. Brunelli, I. Bernabò, C. Bergb, K. Lundstedt-Enkel, A. Bonaccia, and S. Tripepia. Environmentally relevant concentrations of endosulfan impair development, metamorphosis and behaviour in Bufo bufo tadpoles. Aquatic Toxicology, 91:135--142, 2009.
  • [Jorg1988] C. J. Jorgensen. Metabolic costs of growth and maintenance in the toad, Bufo bufo. J. exp Biol., 138:319--331, 1988.
  • [KatzWari2003] S. Katzmann, A. Waringer-Loschenkohl, and A. Waringer. Effects of inter- and intraspecific competition on growth and development of bufo viridis and Bufo bufo tadpoles. Limnologica, 33:122--130, 2003.
  • [Kooy2010] S.A.L.M. Kooijman. Dynamic Energy Budget theory for metabolic organisation. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 2010.

Bibtex file with references for this entry

Jan Baas, Bas Kooijman, 2014/05/31 (last modified by Bas Kooijman 2017/10/24)

accepted: 2017/10/24

refer to this entry as: AmP Bufo bufo version 2017/10/24