Predictions & Data for this entry

Model: std climate: MA, MB, MC migrate:
COMPLETE = 2.8 ecozone: MC food: biP
MRE = 0.328 habitat: 0jMp, jiMb gender: Hh
SMSE = 0.392 embryo: Mp reprod: O

Zero-variate data
ab 1 0.3817 (0.6183)dage at birthCiriTosc2002
ap 60 36.74 (0.3876)dage at pubertyCiriTosc2002
am730 760.9 (0.04229)dlife spanbiotic
Lb0.1 0.1207 (0.2071)cmtotal length at birthCiriTosc2002
Lp 5 5.738 (0.1476)cmtotal length at pubertyCiriTosc2002
Li 15 24.25 (0.6164)cmultimate total lengthbiotic
Ri16.44 16.78 (0.02054)#/dmaximum reprod rateguess
Uni-variate data
DatasetFigure(RE)Independent variableDependent variableReference
tL see Fig. 1 (0.1456)time since hatchinglengthCiriTosc2002
LWdb see Fig. 2 (0.2593)lengthbody dry weight (excl tunic)PeteScho1995
LWdt see Fig. 3 (0.2314)lengthtotal dry weight (incl tunic)PeteScho1995
XdL see Fig. 4 (0.1147)food densityfinal lengthPeteScho1995
XdWdb see Fig. 5 (0.4672)food densityfinal body dry weightPeteScho1995
XdWdt see Fig. 6 (0.3192)food densityfinal total dry weightPeteScho1995
XJX see Fig. 7 (0.8847)food densityingestion ratePeteScho1995
XJC see Fig. 8 (0.4563)food densityrespiration ratePeteScho1995
WdJO see Fig. 9 (0.3279)total dry weightrespiration rateShum1978
Pseudo-data at Tref
DataGeneralised animalCiona intestinalisUnitDescription
v 0.02 0.05048cm/denergy conductance
kap 0.8 0.9998-allocation fraction to soma
kap_R 0.95 0.475-reproduction efficiency
p_M 18 56.95J/^3vol-spec som maint
k_J 0.002 0.00171/dmaturity maint rate coefficient
kap_G 0.8 0.8188-growth efficiency


  • Condition index = body dry wt (excluding tunic)/ total dry wt (inclunding tunic) (ref: PeteScho1995)
  • Larval stage does not feed, lasts minutes to hours at 20 C. (ref: PeteScho1995)
  • Hermaphroditic; external fertilisation; sperm lives for 16 h. (ref: PeteScho1995)


  • Length till 1 cm was measured with an ocular micrometer, probably under a microscope. Larger animals were measured with a ruler, problably while remaining in the culture vessel. The growth curve suggests that putting them under a microscope affects growth.
  • Assumption concerning Food: Rhodomonas: cell diameter 6 mum; 113 mum^3/cell; 42e-12 gC/cell
  • Total dry weight (Wdt) includes tunic, body dry weight excluding the tunic (Wdb). The tunic is assumed to be propto structure so Wdt = L^3 d_V (wt + f * w) while Wdb = L^3 d_V (1 + f * w)


  • [Wiki]
  • [biotic]
  • [CiriTosc2002] P. Cirino, A. Toscano, D. Caramiello, A. Macina, V. Miraglia, and Monte A. Laboratory culture of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis (L.): A model system for molecular developmental biology research. Marine models electronic record, Nov 27, 2002.
  • [Dybe1965] B. J. Dybern. The life cycle of Ciona intestinalis (L.) f. typica in relation to the environmental temperature. Oikos, 16:109--131, 1965.
  • [Kooy2010] S.A.L.M. Kooijman. Dynamic Energy Budget theory for metabolic organisation. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 2010.
  • [PeteScho1995] J. K. Petersen, O. Schou, and P. Thor. Growth and energetics in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Mar Ecol Prog Ser, 120:175--184, 1995.
  • [Shum1978] S. E. Shumway. Respiration, pumping activity and heart rate in Ciona intestinalis exposed to fluctuating salinities. Marine Biology, 48:235--242, 1978.

Bibtex file with references for this entry

Bas Kooijman, 2011/11/05

accepted: 2015/11/06

refer to this entry as: AmP Ciona intestinalis version 2015/11/06