Predictions & Data for this entry

Model: std climate: MA, MB, MC migrate:
COMPLETE = 1.5 ecozone: MC food: biPz
MRE = 0.105 habitat: 0iMpe gender: D
SMSE = 0.104 embryo: Mv reprod: O

Zero-variate data
ab372 425.6 (0.144)dage at birthWiki
ap3285 3003 (0.086)dage at pubertyWiki
am1.825e+04 1.824e+04 (0.0004026)dlife spanWiki
Lb192 138 (0.2813)cmtotal length at birthWiki
Lp390 492.4 (0.2626)cmtotal length at pubertyWiki
Li700 767.8 (0.09691)cmultimate total lengthWiki
Wwb9000 9517 (0.05741)gwet weight at birthWiki
Wwi1.65e+06 1.64e+06 (0.006262)gultimate wet weightWiki
Ri0.00274 0.002702 (0.01391)#/dmaximum reprod rateWiki
Pseudo-data at Tref
DataGeneralised animalManta birostrisUnitDescription
v 0.02 0.1135cm/denergy conductance
kap 0.8 0.9746-allocation fraction to soma
kap_R 0.95 0.95-reproduction efficiency
p_M 18 15.21J/^3vol-spec som maint
k_J 0.002 0.0021/dmaturity maint rate coefficient
kap_G 0.8 0.7989-growth efficiency


  • Ovoviviparous. Myliobatiform stingrays, including the manta ray, sport ‘lipid histotrophy’: the embryo grows to a large size in the uterus mostly by the lipid-rich «milk» secreted from the uterine wall (ref: TomiToda2012)


  • The cost for milk secretion is added to the investment from the reproduction buffer.


Bibtex file with references for this entry

Bas Kooijman, 2013/08/21 (last modified by Bas Kooijman 2016/09/22)

accepted: 2016/09/22

refer to this entry as: AmP Manta birostris version 2016/09/22