Predictions & Data for this entry

Model: stx climate: ME migrate: Mo
COMPLETE = 2.5 ecozone: MS food: bxM, xiCic, xiCvf
MRE = 0.141 habitat: 0iMp gender: Dg
SMSE = 0.172 embryo: Tv reprod: O

Zero-variate data
tg220 258.9 (0.1767)dgestation timeAnAge
tx 23 23.67 (0.02893)dtime since birth at weaningWiki
tp1059 1151 (0.08657)dtime since birth at puberty for femalesAnAge
am9125 9075 (0.005425)dlife spanAnAge
Li260 268.6 (0.03307)cmultimate total length for femalesWiki
Lim500 483.2 (0.03368)cmultimate total length for malesWiki
Wwb4.25e+04 5.417e+04 (0.2747)gwet weight at birthAnAge
Wwx1.25e+05 5.753e+04 (0.5398)gwet weight at weaningWiki
Wwi4e+05 4.221e+05 (0.05537)gultimate wet weight for femalesWiki
Wwim3.5e+06 3.558e+06 (0.01661)gultimate wet weight for malesWiki
Ri0.00274 0.002477 (0.09586)#/dmaximum reprod rateAnAge
Uni-variate data
DatasetFigure(RE)Independent variableDependent variableReference
tW_f see Fig. 1 (0.1874)time since birthwet weightBryd1969
tW_m see Fig. 1 (0.3055)time since birthwet weightBryd1969
Pseudo-data at Tref
DataGeneralised animalMirounga leoninaUnitDescription
v 0.02 0.0682cm/denergy conductance
kap 0.8 0.7318-allocation fraction to soma
kap_R 0.95 0.95-reproduction efficiency
p_M 18 7.719J/^3vol-spec som maint
k_J 0.002 0.00023061/dmaturity maint rate coefficient
kap_G 0.8 0.8-growth efficiency
k 0.3 0.2343-maintenance ratio


  • largest sex difference among mammals; can dive till 2.133 km (ref: Wiki)
  • gestation time of 11.5 month include 3-4 month delayed implantation (ref: AnAge)
  • this entry is used in GoedMelb2018 (ref: GoedMelb2018)


  • Males are assumes to differ from females by {p_Am} only
  • Male {p_Am} jumps upward at puberty, as discussed in Kooy2014 under type A accelerationThe male growth curve could fit better if puberty was dealed with as a period, rather than an event
  • In view of low somatic maintenance, k has been targeted to 0.1 and pseudodata for k_J removed


  • [Wiki]
  • [AnAge]
  • [Bryd1969] M. M. Bryden. Growth of the south elephant seal mirounga leonina (linn.). Growth, 33:69--82, 1969.
  • [GoedMelb2018] M. Goedegebuure, J. Melbourne-Thomas, S. P. Corney, C. R. McMahon, and M. A. Hindell. Modelling southern elephant seals Mirounga leonina using an individual-based model coupled with a dynamic energy budget. PLOS ONE, 13(3):e0194950, 2018.
  • [Kooy2014] S. A. L. M. Kooijman. Metabolic acceleration in animal ontogeny: an evolutionary perspective. J. Sea Res., 94:128--137, 2014.
  • [Kooy2010] S.A.L.M. Kooijman. Dynamic Energy Budget theory for metabolic organisation. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 2010.
  • [Litt2006] G. J. Little. Body temperature in the newborn southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina, at Macquarie Island. Marine mammals science, 11:480--490, 2006.

Bibtex file with references for this entry

Bas Kooijman, 2013/03/02 (last modified by Bas Kooijman 2017/11/11)

accepted: 2017/11/11

refer to this entry as: AmP Mirounga leonina version 2017/11/11