Predictions & Data for this entry

Model: std climate: Cfb migrate: Mp phylum:
COMPLETE = 3.0 ecozone: TA food: biCi, biHl, biHs class:
MRE = 0.143 habitat: 0iFr, 0iFm gender: D order:
SMSE = 0.139 embryo: Fh reprod: O family:

Zero-variate data
ab_15 56 41.95 (0.2509)dage at birth at 15 CMuelJoss2011
ab_20 29 25.12 (0.1338)dage at birth at 20 CMuelJoss2011
ab_25 16 15.3 (0.04362)dage at birth at 25 CMuelJoss2011
ap8030 7652 (0.04706)dage at puberty for femaleBrooKind2002
apm6205 6657 (0.07287)dage at puberty for maleBrooKind2002
am2.92e+04 2.92e+04 (8.94e-05)dlife spanWiki
L1102.7 3.244 (0.2015)cmtotal length at 110 dMerrSchm1984
L240 6 6.141 (0.02343)cmtotal length at 240 dMerrSchm1984
Lp83.5 91.04 (0.09034)cmtotal length at puberty for femaleBrooKind2002
Lpm 77 74.89 (0.02743)cmtotal length at puberty for maleBrooKind2002
Li150 116.2 (0.2254)cmultimate total lengthWhitPoll1960
Wdb0.00165 0.002166 (0.3128)gdry weight at birthMuelJoss2011
Wwb0.00839 0.01083 (0.2909)gwet weight at birthMuelJoss2011
Wwi4.3e+04 4.303e+04 (0.0007786)gultimate wet weightWhitPoll1960
Ri1.644 1.535 (0.06631)#/dmaximum reprod ratePuseKenn2004
Uni-variate data
DatasetFigure(RE)Independent variableDependent variableReference
aJO_25 see Fig. 1 (0.238)ageO2 consumptionMuelJoss2011
aJO_20 see Fig. 1 (0.2526)ageO2 consumptionMuelJoss2011
aJO_15 see Fig. 1 (0.3052)ageO2 consumptionMuelJoss2011
Pseudo-data at Tref
DataGeneralised animalNeoceratodus forsteriUnitDescription
v 0.02 0.0173cm/denergy conductance
kap 0.8 0.9987-allocation fraction to soma
kap_R 0.95 0.95-reproduction efficiency
p_M 18 13.04J/^3vol-spec som maint
k_J 0.002 0.0021/dmaturity maint rate coefficient
kap_G 0.8 0.7301-growth efficiency


  • The female has a large ovary and the potential to lay many eggs, but in the wild only produces a few hundreds of eggs, at most, during her lifetime. In captivity, anywhere from 200 to 500-600 eggs have been laid in a single event. The lungfish does not necessarily spawn every year. A good spawning season occurs approximately once every five years, regardless of environmental conditions. (ref: PuseKenn2004)
  • During the first week it lies on its side, hiding in the weeds and moving only when stimulated by touch. It will swim spontaneously, and often retreat back into the gelatinous envelope when disturbed. Newly hatched larvae develop a ciliary current over the skin and gill surfaces. Larvae are reported not to feed for 2-3 weeks while the yolk is still present. (But MuelJoss2011 give 0.0452 g gut-free wet weigth at yolk absorption and 0.00893 at hatch). By the time the yolk is fully utilized, a spiral valve has developed in the intestine and the fish starts to feed. The young can be fast growing, and can grow about 2 inches per month under optimal conditions. (ref: WhitBone1980)
  • The lungfish is tolerant of cold, but prefers waters with temperatures between 15-25 C. Both sexes follow similar growth patterns, although the females grow to a slightly larger size. (ref: PuseKenn2004)


  • Males are assumed to differ from females by {p_Am} only


  • [Wiki]
  • [AlleMidg2002] G. R. Allen, S. H. Midgley, and M. Allen. Field Guide to the Freshwater Fishes of Australia. Western Australia Museum, Perth, W.A., 2002.
  • [BrooKind2002] S. G. Brooks and P. K. Kind. Ecology and demography of the Queensland lungfish (Neoceratodus forsteri) in the Burnett River, Queensland with reference to the impacts of Walla Weir and future water infrastructure development. Technical Report QO02004, Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Brisbane, 2002.
  • [Kooy2010] S.A.L.M. Kooijman. Dynamic Energy Budget theory for metabolic organisation. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 2010.
  • [MerrSchm1984] J. R. Merrick and G. E. Schmida. Australian Freshwater Fishes Biology and Management. Griffin Press, Sydney, 1984.
  • [MuelJoss2011] C. A. Mueller, J. M. P. Joss, and R. S. Seymour. The energy cost of embryonic development in fishes and amphibians, with emphasis on new data from the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri. J. Comp. Physiol. B, 181:43--52, 2011.
  • [PuseKenn2004] B. Pusey, M. Kennard, and A. Arthington. Freshwater Fishes of North-Eastern Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Nathan, QLD, 2004.
  • [WhitBone1980] H. P. Whiting and Q. Bone. Ciliary cells in the epidermis of the larval Australian dipnoan, Neoceratodus. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 68:125--137, 1980.
  • [WhitPoll1960] G. P. Whitley and J. Jack Pollard. G. P. Whitley's Handbook of Australian Fishes. Wilke and Company Ltd., Victoria, 1960.

Bibtex file with references for this entry

Bas Kooijman, 2011/06/22 (last modified by Bas Kooijman 2016/10/16)

accepted: 2015/09/10

refer to this entry as: AmP Neoceratodus forsteri version 2015/09/10