Predictions & Data for this entry

Model: std climate: MB migrate: Mo
COMPLETE = 2.7 ecozone: MAW food: biCi
MRE = 0.103 habitat: 0iMr, 0iMcd gender: D
SMSE = 0.113 embryo: Mnm reprod: O

Zero-variate data
ah 30 30.47 (0.01567)dage at hatchWiki
ap1059 1146 (0.08271)dage at pubertyMensStep2001
am7300 7317 (0.002283)dlife spanKooy2014
Lb1.55 1.395 (0.09992)cmtotal length at birthgma
Lp 25 21.82 (0.1272)cmtotal length at pubertyPalaSara2001
Li43.2 46.58 (0.07817)cmultimate total lengthfishbase
Wi2200 2145 (0.02487)gultimate wet weightfishbase
R343.288 3.169 (0.03607)#/dreprod rate L = 34.5 cmPalaSara2001
Uni-variate data
DatasetFigure(RE)Independent variableDependent variableReference
tL see Fig. 1 (0.08152)time since hatchlength Dove1960
tL_19 see Fig. 2 (0.2603)time since hatchlength MensStep2001
tL_15 see Fig. 2 (0.2476)time since hatchlength MensStep2001
tW_19 see Fig. 3 (0.08981)time since hatchwet weight MensStep2001
tW_15 see Fig. 3 (0.1747)time since hatchwet weight MensStep2001
LW see Fig. 4 (0.1247)lengthwet weight SwarEnge1968
Pseudo-data at Tref
DataGeneralised animalOpsanus tauUnitDescription
v 0.02 0.0346cm/denergy conductance
kap 0.8 0.4961-allocation fraction to soma
kap_R 0.95 0.95-reproduction efficiency
p_M 18 16.97J/^3vol-spec som maint
k_J 0.002 0.0021/dmaturity maint rate coefficient
kap_G 0.8 0.8-growth efficiency


  • The species can live in very bad conditions and needs little food to live (ref: Wiki)
  • The sound-producing (sonic) muscles attached to its swimbladders are the fastest known vertebrate muscles. This is used to attract females. (ref: Wiki)
  • The male fertilizes the egg; they hatch after approximately one month;When the eggs hatch the young toadfish stay attached to the yolk for some time.When the yolk has been absorbed for energy, the young toadfish learn to swim. Even when the young have started to swim the adult still protects its young. (ref: Wiki)
  • There is a large open pit of unknown function in the axil of each pectoral fin. (ref: gma)
  • huge yolk sac at hatch for development from hatch to birth (ref: Dove1960)


  • [Wiki]
  • [gma]
  • [fishbase]
  • [Kooy2014] guessed.
  • [Dove1960] W. Dovel. Larval development of the oyster toadfish, Opsanus tau. Chesapeake Sci., 1(3-4):187--195, 1960.
  • [Kooy2010] S.A.L.M. Kooijman. Dynamic Energy Budget theory for metabolic organisation. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 2010.
  • [MensStep2001] A. F. Mensinger, K. A. Stephenson, S. L. Pollema, H. E. Richmond, N. Price, and R. T. Hanlon. Mariculture of the toadfish Opsanus tau. Biol. Bull., 201:282--283, 2001.
  • [PalaSara2001] J. L. Palazón-Fernaández, A. M. Arias, and C. Sarasqete. Aspects of the reproductive biology of the toadfish, Halobatrachus didactylus (Schneider, 1801) (Pisces: Batrachoididae). Sci. Mar., 65(2):131--138, 2001.
  • [SwarEnge1968] R. C. Swartz and W. A. van Engel. Length, weight, and girth relations in the toadfish, Opsanus tau. Chesapeake Sci., 9(4):249--253, 1968.

Bibtex file with references for this entry

Bas Kooijman, 2014/05/15 (last modified by Bas Kooijman 2016/10/25)

accepted: 2016/11/01

refer to this entry as: AmP Opsanus tau version 2016/11/01