Predictions & Data for this entry

Model: abj climate: MC migrate: phylum:
COMPLETE = 2.5 ecozone: MAN food: biCia class:
MRE = 0.117 habitat: 0jMp, jiMb gender: D order:
SMSE = 0.110 embryo: Mbm reprod: O family:

Zero-variate data
ab 32 29.32 (0.08374)dage at birthTomaWilh1997
tj 83 71.66 (0.1366)dtime since birth at metamTomaWilh1997
tp290 356.6 (0.2296)dtime since birth at pubertyTomaWilh1997
am3285 3295 (0.003093)dlife spanTomaWilh1997
Lb0.015 0.01428 (0.04776)cmtotal length at birthTomaWilh1997
Lj0.071 0.09497 (0.3377)cmtotal length at metamTomaWilh1997
Lp0.82 0.6103 (0.2557)cmtotal length at pubertyTomaWilh1997
Li1.01 1.123 (0.1116)cmultimate total lengthTomaWilh1997
Wwi0.077 0.0771 (0.001331)gultimate wet weightguessed
Ri150.7 150.5 (0.001056)#/dmaximum reprod rateguessed
Uni-variate data
DatasetFigure(RE)Independent variableDependent variableReference
tL see Fig. 1 (0.07898)time since birthlengthTomaWilh1997
Pseudo-data at Tref
DataGeneralised animalPycnogonum litoraleUnitDescription
v 0.02 0.0005472cm/denergy conductance
kap 0.8 0.9517-allocation fraction to soma
kap_R 0.95 0.95-reproduction efficiency
p_M 18 244J/^3vol-spec som maint
k_J 0.002 0.0021/dmaturity maint rate coefficient
kap_G 0.8 0.8006-growth efficiency


  • grasp hydranths of Clava multicornis (Hydractiniidae) as larvae and feed on their stolons (ref: TomaWilh1997)
  • loose larval extremities at 5th moult and change feeding from small hydroids to sea anemones (ref: TomaWilh1997)
  • number of juvenile moults varies between 6 and 8 (ref: TomaWilh1997)
  • juvenile also increase in length during intermoult; First increase can be due to uptake of water (ref: TomaWilh1997)
  • males carry the eggs on their ovigers till protonymphon larvae hatch (ref: TomaWilh1997)
  • prefers Metridium senile as food above Actinia equina and Tealia felina in British waters (ref: TomaWilh1997)
  • repeated mating as adults without further moults (ref: TomaWilh1997)
  • can starve for 18 months (ref: TomaWilh1997)
  • females deposit all their eggs in a single clutch on the male (ref: JarvKing1972)


  • [Wiki]
  • [JarvKing1972] J. H. Jarvis and P. E. King. Reproduction and development in the pycnogonid Pycnogonum littorale. Marine Biology, 13:146--154, 1972.
  • [Kooy2010] S.A.L.M. Kooijman. Dynamic Energy Budget theory for metabolic organisation. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 2010.
  • [TomaWilh1997] K.-H. Tomaschko, E. Wilhelm, and D. Buckmann. Growth and reproduction of Pycnogonum litorale (Pycnogonida) under laboratory conditions. Marine Biology, 129:595--600, 1997.

Bibtex file with references for this entry

Bas Kooijman, 2014/04/09 (last modified by Bas Kooijman 2016/10/15)

accepted: 2016/10/15

refer to this entry as: AmP Pycnogonum litorale version 2016/10/15