Predictions & Data for this entry

Model: stx climate: C, D migrate:
COMPLETE = 2.5 ecozone: THp food: biPp
MRE = 0.048 habitat: 0iFm, 0iFp gender: D
SMSE = 0.072 embryo: Fbb reprod: O

Zero-variate data
ax 60 61.21 (0.02014)dage at emergenceThie1928
tp 90 94.09 (0.04547)dtime since emergence at pupertyusgs
am1095 1095 (5.979e-06)dlife spanusgs
L00.00608 0.006079 (0.0001012)cminitial egg lengthStep1865
Lx0.2 0.2018 (0.008964)cmshell length at emergenceHear1977
Lp0.5 0.4563 (0.0873)cmshell length at pubertyHoloPent1993
Li1.4 1.486 (0.06157)cmultimate shell lengthusgs
Ri0.4786 0.4803 (0.003584)#maximum reprod rateVoel2015
Uni-variate data
DatasetFigure(RE)Independent variableDependent variableReference
tL see Fig. 1 (0.08726)time since start of experimentshell lengthGallMore1988
LW see Fig. 2 (0.169)shell lengthdry weightData2017
Pseudo-data at Tref
DataGeneralised animalSphaerium corneumUnitDescription
v 0.02 0.02475cm/denergy conductance
kap 0.8 1-allocation fraction to soma
kap_R 0.95 0.95-reproduction efficiency
p_M 18 32.23J/^3vol-spec som maint
k_J 0.002 0.0021/dmaturity maint rate coefficient
kap_G 0.8 0.8016-growth efficiency


  • no veliger stage; the neonate develops in the mantle cavity of the mother till age 60 d (ref: Hear1977)


  • The ab-data of Thie1928 refers to the development of the juveniles inside the adults. Referring to Hear1977 the development from S. corneum takes place in brood sacs. Primary sacs contain embryos, secondary sacs fetal larvae, and tertiary sacs prodissoconch larvae. The young start feeding on epithelial cells within the brood sacs. (Blan1988) The extra-marsupial larvae remain for some time inside the adult and feed on algae.
  • Hear1977 found that eggs and sperm in the extra-marsupial larvae in most species of Sphaerium. This leads to the assumption that maturity in Sphaerium corneum takes place before the young are released from the adult


  • This entry was financially supported by the CEFIC Long-range Research Initiative (project number ECO28)


  • [usgs]
  • [Blan1988] K. Blandel. Stages in the ontogeny and a model of the evolution of bivalves (Mollusca). Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 62:217--254, 1988.
  • [Hear1977] W. H. Heard. Reproduction of fingernail clams(Sphaeriidae: Sphaerium and Musculium). Malacologia, 16(2):421--455, 1977.
  • [HoloPent1993] I. J. Holopainen and O. P. Penttinen. Normoxic and anoxic heat output of the freshwater bivalves Pisidium and Sphaerium. Oecologia, 93:215--223, 1993.
  • [GallMore1988] J. M. LeGallo and J. C. Moretau. Croissance et productivite dune population du Sphaerium corneum (L.) (Bivalvia: Pisidiiae). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 66:439--445, 1988.
  • [Step1865] P. Stepanoff. Ueber die Geschlechtsorgane und die Entwickelung von Cyclas. Archiv für Naturgeschichte, XXXI. Jahrgang, 1. Band:1--32, 1865.
  • [Thie1928] M. E. Thiel. Zur biologie unserer süßwasser-muscheln. Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere, 13:65--116, 1928.
  • [Voel2015] C. Voelker, I. Kaempken, C. Boedicker, J. Oehlmann, and M. Oetken. Toxicity of silver nanoparticles and ionic silver: Comparison of adverse effects and potential toxicity mechanisms in the freshwarwe clam Sphaerium corneum. Nanotoxicology, 9:677--685, 2015.
  • [Data2017] Kristin Katrin Weiss, 2017. Own measurements.

Bibtex file with references for this entry

Kristin Katrin Weiss, Andre Gergs &Kim Ladermann, 2017/10/04

accepted: 2017/10/04

refer to this entry as: AmP Sphaerium corneum version 2017/10/04