Predictions & Data for this entry

Model: stf climate: MA, MB, MC migrate:
COMPLETE = 3.0 ecozone: MC food: biP
MRE = 0.282 habitat: 0iMp gender: Hsff
SMSE = 0.353 embryo: Mp reprod: Aa

Zero-variate data
ab0.75 1.02 (0.3599)dage at birth Hens2009, BorgMoll1986
ap 1 1.218 (0.2178)dage at pubertyBorgMoll1986
am2.75 2.75 (5.193e-05)dlife span Hens2009, BorgMoll1986
Lb_asex0.3 0.3121 (0.04031)cmlength at birth, asex generationHero1972
Lb_sex0.175 0.1301 (0.2565)cmlength at birth, sex generationHero1972
Lp_asex0.54 0.3495 (0.3527)cmlength at puberty, asex generationHero1972
Li_asex1.24 1.222 (0.01452)cmultimate length, asex generationHero1972
Wwb_asex0.003726 0.0009832 (0.7361)gwet weight at birth, asex generationHero1972
Wwp_asex0.01159 0.001381 (0.8808)gwet weight at puberty, asex generationHero1972
Wwi_asex0.05764 0.05902 (0.02396)gultimate wet weight, asex generationHero1972
Ri_asex336 364.7 (0.08539)#/dmaximum reprod rate, asex generationBorgMoll1986
Uni-variate data
DatasetFigure(RE)Independent variableDependent variableReference
LdL see Fig. 1 (10.38)lengthincrease in lengthHero1972
LN see Fig. 2 (0.345)lengthbuds per chainHens2009
LF see Fig. 3 (0.2531)lengthfiltering rateMull1983
WJX see Fig. 4 (0.3758)weightingestion rateDeib1982
Pseudo-data at Tref
DataGeneralised animalThalia democraticaUnitDescription
v 0.02 0.06648cm/denergy conductance
kap 0.8 0.1-allocation fraction to soma
kap_R 0.95 0.95-reproduction efficiency
p_M 18 8000J/^3vol-spec som maint
k_J 0.002 0.0021/dmaturity maint rate coefficient
kap_G 0.8 0.8016-growth efficiency


  • Length measurements: from oral opening to posterior ridge of gut; Carbon Weight (mug C) = 1.62 Length (mm)^1.93;increase in density with length probably linked to reproductive output (Bas-interpretation); dry weight was 8.04
  • sexual generation has placental development, one asexual embryo per parent; sexual stage lives in chains, asexual one solitary; strict alternation; asexual parent buds off 20 - 80 sexual embryos at 10 mm born on a chain, fed via blood; the sexual neonates need 30 min to leave the chain; sexual embryos are 1.5 till 2 mm at budding, asexual embryos are 3 mm at birth; length measurements: max length of internal structure, excluding transparent test; (ref: Hero1972)
  • Sexual: 5h release from chain; 18h female, 2h male (20-22 C). Asexual: 24h juvenile; 24 h adult, chain forming each 5 h (20-22 C). the sexual individuals (blastozooids) are sequential hermaphrodites; first maturing as females, fertilised by older chains; after relase of the first baby, male gonads develop. (ref: Hens2009)


  • This file is on the asexual (oozooid) stage, treating budding as foetal developemnt.Notice that size at birth of asexual stage is larger than that of sexual stage which affects reprodcutive output in #/time
  • Parameter esitomates tuned by hand


  • [Wiki]
  • [BorgMoll1986] R. le Borgne and P. Moll. Growth rates of the salp Thalia democratica in Tikehau Atoll (Tuamotu Is.). Oceanogr. trop., 21:23--29, 1986.
  • [Deib1982] D. Deibel. Laboratory-measured grazing and ingestion rates of the salp, Thalia democratica Forskål, and the doliolid, Dolioletta gegenbauri Uljanin (Tunicata, Thaliacea). J. Plankton Res., 4:189--201, 1982.
  • [Hens2009] N. Henschke. Distribution and population structure of the salp Thalia democratica in relation to water masses of the Tasman Sea. PhD thesis, Univ. New South Wales, 2009.
  • [Hero1972] A. C. Heron. Population ecology of a colonizing species: the pelagic tunicate Thalia democratica i: Individual growth rate and generation time. Oecologia (Berl.), 10:269--293, 1972.
  • [HeroBenh1985] A. C. Heron and E. E. Benham. Life history parameters as indicators of grwoth rate in three salp populations. J. Plankton Res., 7:279--288, 1985.
  • [HeroMcWi1988] A. C. Heron, P. S. McWilliam, and G. Dal Pont. Length-weight relation in the salp Thalia democratica and potential of salps as a source of food. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 42:125--132, 1988.
  • [Kooy2010] S.A.L.M. Kooijman. Dynamic Energy Budget theory for metabolic organisation. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 2010.
  • [Mull1983] M. M. Mullin. In situ measurement of filtering rates of the salp, Thalia democratica, on phytoplankton and bacteria. J. Plankton Res., 5:279--288, 1983.

Bibtex file with references for this entry

Bas Kooijman, 2011/10/31 (last modified by Gonšalo M. Marques, Bas Kooijman 2015/03/30)

accepted: 2016/04/27

refer to this entry as: AmP Thalia democratica version 2016/04/27